Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Patients Attending the Laquintinie Hospital Douala, Cameroon (2023)

Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Patients Attending the Laquintinie Hospital Douala, Cameroon

European Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 6, December 2016, Pages: 92-96
Received: Oct. 31, 2016; Accepted: Dec. 3, 2016; Published: Jan. 5, 2017

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Authors

Marie Ebob Agbortabot Bissong, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bamenda, Bambili, Cameroon

Therese Wirgham, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, St. Louis University Institute of Health and Biomedical Sciences, Bamenda, Cameroon

Mbi Alice Enekegbe, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, St. Louis University Institute of Health and Biomedical Sciences, Bamenda, Cameroon

Peter Thelma Ngwa Niba, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, St. Louis University Institute of Health and Biomedical Sciences, Bamenda, Cameroon

Frank Eric Tatsing Foka, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North West University, Mafikeng, South Africa

Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major health problem worldwide. Diseases caused by these microorganisms most often are difficult to treat consequently, present with severe outcomes. Despite the increase association of MRSA in most hospital acquired infections, surveillance systems to control the spread of these infections are lacking especially in the developing countries. The present study is part of a major study developed to trail the incidence of multidrug resistant pathogens in clinical settings using available resources, with the aim to gather relevant data for the management and control of nosocomial infections. The specific objective of the current study is therefore to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of MRSA isolates from one of the largest hospitals in the country. This was a hospital based cross sectional study involving 114 participants, conducted between March and June 2016. Various clinical specimens were inoculated on to blood agar and mannitol salt agar and incubated at 35-37°C aerobically for 18-24 hours for the isolation of S. aureus. Isolates were identified using the catalase and coagulase tests. Sensitivity testing was done using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. Data were analysed using SPSS version 20.0. Out of 114 samples analysed, S. aureus was isolated from 33 (28.95%) while MRSA was detected in 15 (13.16%). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed high resistance (80-100%) to penicillins and no resistance to amikacin, lincomycin and ofloxacin. Multidrug resistance to at least three antibiotics was also observed among MRSA isolates. MRSA and multidrug resistant S. aureus are common in the study site. Therefore, there is a need for the improvement of surveillance systems to monitor and curb the spread of these resistant pathogens.

Prevalence, Antimicrobial Resistance, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Laquintinie Hospital, Cameroon

Marie Ebob Agbortabot Bissong, Therese Wirgham, Mbi Alice Enekegbe, Peter Thelma Ngwa Niba, Frank Eric Tatsing Foka, Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Patients Attending the Laquintinie Hospital Douala, Cameroon, European Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences. Volume 2, Issue 6, December 2016 , pp. 92-96. doi: 10.11648/j.ejcbs.20160206.16

Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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FAQs

Why is MRSA common in hospitals? ›

How is MRSA spread in healthcare settings? MRSA is usually spread by direct contact with an infected wound or from contaminated hands, usually those of healthcare providers. Also, people who carry MRSA but do not have signs of infection can spread the bacteria to others (i.e., people who are colonized).

What antibiotics is MRSA resistant to? ›

MRSA is resistant to (unable to be killed by) all beta-lactam antibiotics. This includes all penicillins (e.g., amoxicillin) and cephalosporins (e.g., keflex). The first documented MRSA outbreak in the United States occurred at a Boston hospital in 1968.

Where is Staphylococcus aureus found? ›

S. aureus is commonly found in the environment (soil, water and air) and is also found in the nose and on the skin of humans. S. aureus is a Gram-positive, non-spore forming spherical bacterium that belongs to the Staphylococcus genus.

What does Staphylococcus aureus cause? ›

It is the leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections such as abscesses (boils), furuncles, and cellulitis. Although most staph infections are not serious, S. aureus can cause serious infections such as bloodstream infections, pneumonia, or bone and joint infections.

How common is MRSA in the hospital? ›

The CDC estimates that roughly 5 percent of inpatients carry MRSA, and one study found that up to 13 percent of ICU patients are MRSA carriers on admission. Most of those people never know they're colonized, because they never get sick, but they can easily transmit staph to others.

How do hospitals reduce the risk of MRSA? ›

To prevent MRSA infections, healthcare personnel: Clean their hands with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer before and after caring for every patient. Carefully clean hospital rooms and medical equipment. Use Contact Precautions when caring for patients with MRSA (colonized, or carrying, and infected).

What is the gold standard for isolating and identifying MRSA? ›

The PCR assay is considered to be the gold standard for the detection of MRSA.

What antibiotics is Staphylococcus aureus susceptible to? ›

Staphylococcus aureus develops resistance very quickly and successfully to different antimicrobials over a period of time. The highest frequency of S. aureus occurred with susceptibility to antimicrobial agent Levofloxacin (100%) followed by Ciprofloxacin (78.9%) while the least was Penicillin (7.1%).

What is the difference between staph and MRSA? ›

MRSA is a type of staph infection that is resistant to certain antibiotics. The main difference is that an MRSA infection may require different types of antibiotics. MRSA and staph infections have similar symptoms, causes, risk factors, and treatments.

What is the incubation period for Staphylococcus aureus? ›

Incubation period of staphylococci

The incubation period is variable and indefinite. It is most commonly 4–10 days.

Why are staph and other infections a special problem in hospitals and LTC units? ›

In healthcare facilities, the risk of more serious staph infection is higher because many patients have weakened immune systems or have undergone procedures.

What temperature kills Staphylococcus aureus toxins? ›

The results show that at temperatures of 60 oC and 65 oC, S. aureus isolates did not grow at 60 minutes. All isolates of S. aureus died when the temperatures were increased to 70 oC and 80 oC, at 50 and 20 minutes, respectively.

How can you prevent the spread of Staphylococcus aureus? ›

Prevention
  1. Wash your hands. Thorough hand washing is your best defense against germs. ...
  2. Keep wounds covered. Keep cuts and scrapes clean and covered with sterile, dry bandages until they heal. ...
  3. Reduce tampon risks. ...
  4. Keep personal items personal. ...
  5. Wash clothing and bedding. ...
  6. Take food safety precautions.
25 May 2022

What internal organ is most affected by MRSA? ›

The skin is the part of the body most affected by the condition, as the bacteria can cause boils, blisters, hair root infection, and peeling skin. If not monitored or treated properly, MRSA can spread to affect the blood, bones, and major organs of the body like the heart and lungs.

What is the common name for Staphylococcus aureus? ›

Staph is the common name for the bacteria named Staphylococcus aureus. What makes MRSA different from a typical staph infection is its resistance to the antibiotic methicillin and other common antibiotics, such as amoxicillin, oxacillin, and penicillin.

What is the difference between community acquired MRSA and hospital acquired MRSA? ›

The Community acquired MRSA occurs in individuals in the community, who are generally healthy and who were not receiving healthcare in a hospital or on an ongoing outpatient basis. The HA-MRSA refers to the hospital or healthcare acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Where is MRSA most prevalent? ›

Where are the most common places to detect MRSA? MRSA is commonly found in the nose, back of the throat, armpits, skin folds of the groin and in wounds.

How are staph infections spread in hospitals? ›

Staph germs are mostly spread by skin-to-skin contact (touching). A doctor, nurse, other health care provider, or even visitors may have staph germs on their body and then spread them to a patient.

Where is MRSA most commonly found? ›

Where are the most common places to detect MRSA? MRSA is commonly found in the nose, back of the throat, armpits, skin folds of the groin and in wounds. The only way to know if you have MRSA is by sending a swab or a sample, such as urine, to the hospital laboratory for testing.

What is MRSA and why is it such a concern to healthcare professionals? ›

Staph bacteria, including MRSA, can cause skin infections that may look like a pimple or boil and can be red, swollen, painful, or have pus or other drainage. More serious infections may cause pneumonia, bloodstream infections, or skin and soft tissue wound infections.

Where is MRSA most commonly found in the world? ›

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is widely recognized as one of the pathogens causing hospital- and community- acquired infections. MRSA is highly prevalent in hospitals worldwide in which high rates (>50%) were reported in Asia, Malta, North and South America [1].

Why is MRSA such a problem? ›

MRSA is a type of staph bacteria that has become resistant to the effects of many common antibiotics. This means that the antibiotics that used to kill the bacteria — such as methicillin — no longer work. This makes MRSA infections much more difficult to treat.

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