Purposive Sampling Method | Types and Techniques Explained (2023)

Purposive samplingis a non-probability sampling technique used with both qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Research students mostly use it as an effective tool while studying a specific cultural domain with proficient experts. Here the researchers rely on their own judgment when choosing the population members to participate in their surveys. That is why this sampling technique is also known as judgmental, selective, or subjective sampling. Here you need to have:

1. Prior knowledge about the purpose of your study.

2. You can select or approach eligible participants for the survey.

3. You can hold the survey Online to select a particular set of people who match the desired profile.

(Video) Purposive Sampling

4. Focus on the sampling techniques where the units that are investigated are based on the judgment of the researcher.

Purposive Sampling Method | Types and Techniques Explained (1)

What is Purposive Sampling?

Purposive samplingis a group of various non-probability sampling techniques that depend on the researcher's discernment to select the units such as people, organizations, cases, events, pieces of data, etc., that are studied. The amount of sample is smaller in comparison to probability sampling techniques. Unlike probability sampling techniques,purposive samplingdoes not take arbitrary units from a population to create a sample report to generalize information like statistical inferences. It is the general intent of a quantitative research design.

What is the purpose of Purposive Sampling?

The purpose or primary goal ofpurposive samplingis:

  1. To focus on particular characteristics of a population that are of interest.
  2. Purposive samplingenables the best research method to examine and discover the answer to your research question.
  3. It enables the researchers to gather a lot of information out of the data that they have collected.
  4. Purposive samplingallows researchers to describe the significant impact their findings have on their population.
  5. The purpose of the method varies depending on the type of purposing sampling techniques that are used. E.g. in the case of homogeneous sampling, the researcher needs to select the units focusing on their similar characteristics. Or in the case of exploratory or qualitative research, one can use critical case sampling to assess whether the phenomenon of interest exists or whether it is worth researching along with other fundamental analyses.

Types of Purposive Sampling

Purposive samplinghas a wide range of techniques that researchers use to collect information. Several subtypes of purposive sampling are:

(Video) PURPOSIVE SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

  1. Maximum Variation Sampling

It is used to collect a wide range of participants with different viewpoints to study a particular phenomenon. Can uncover common themes. Ranging from typical conditions to those which are more rare or extreme by nature. By condition, it means various research units like people, cases, different sets of data, organizations etc. The various research units exhibit a wide range of behaviors, experiences, attributes, qualities, situations, incidents etc. The central motif of maximum variation sampling is to gather broader and deeper insight into a phenomenon by looking at it from all possible points of view and perspectives. It can often help the researcher identify the basic and common themes that are evident across the sample.

  • Homogeneous Sampling

Here, you need to select a small homogeneous group of subjects or units for examination and analysis in the research process. The sampling seeks to achieve a homogeneous sample whose units share similar characteristics or traits regarding age, gender, occupation, background, etc. For example, age 13-19, Teenage School students: female.

  • Extreme or Deviant Case Sampling

It focuses on exceptional cases that are rare or unusual by nature. It highlights the senses that have notable outcomes, failures or successes. The deviant case sampling helps research students to make an exciting impression before their professors and contribute something unique to their disciplines. The extreme cases help in providing significant insight into a particular phenomenon which can be used as a lesson or guide for future research or practice. It reflects the purest form of insight into the phenomenon being studied.

  • Critical Case Sampling

Critical case sampling is used in exploratory qualitative research or any limited source research. To identify critical issues, the research team needs to determine the dimensions that make a case critical. It is also used to test a hypothesis by choosing the case that permits logical deductions of the type, "If this is valid for this case, then it should apply to all cases." Or "If it is not valid for this case, it is unlikely to be valid for any other cases". So it permits logical generalization and maximum application of information to other cases because if it's true of this one case, it's likely to be true of all other cases.

(Video) Purposive Sampling

  • Typical Case Sampling

Using typical case sampling, you can study a phenomenon or trend related to what is considered "typical" or "average" members of the affected population. For example, you will know about how a type of educational curriculum affects the average student. Then the researcher chooses to focus on average members of a student population. In this kind ofpurposive sampling,the units of analysis are large, for example, in studies of villages in developing countries. It will allow the researcher to illustrate the general process that occurs. This strategy is advantageous if the research report will predominantly be read by people unfamiliar with the area of research.

  • Total Population sampling

Researchers use this technique to examine the entire population with specific traits like some particular experience, such as the current pandemic situation due to COVID-19, similar knowledge skills, exposure to an event, etc. Here, the entire population is often chosen because the size of the population that has the particular set of characteristics that you are interested in is minimal.

  • Expert Sampling

Expert sampling is used to glean knowledge from individuals that have particular expertise in the specific research field. It's used when you need the opinions or assessment of people with a high degree of knowledge about the study area. When used in this way, expert sampling is a simple sub-type of purposive sampling. It is instrumental where there is a lack of empirical evidence in an area and high levels of uncertainty and situations where it may take a long time before can uncover the findings from research. Therefore, it can be considered as a cornerstone of a research method.

Benefits and Drawbacks of Purposive Sampling

Each different type ofprospective samplinghas its advantages and disadvantages. Some of them are discussed below:

(Video) Purposive Sampling Technique

The Benefits:

  1. It enables researchers to describe the significant impact their findings have on the population.
  2. It is convenient to use. It is very time and cost-effective when compared to other sampling methods.
  3. Purposive samplinghas versatile research methods that can tailor to enhance a survey's effectiveness.
  4. Even if you have a limited number of primary data sources that can contribute to the survey, you can use thepurposive samplingtechnique to collect data.
  5. Different techniques have individual goals, but they can justify making generalizationsfrom the sample that is being studied to understand their relative advantages.

The Drawbacks:

  1. The first drawback is that as the researchers make subjective or generalized assumptions while choosing the participants for the online survey, the result is biased. Although the threat only remains if the researcher's study is poorly considered. Or if they have not been based on clear criteria.
  2. The researcher uses their judgment to select the units of measurement. One can challenge the research by suggesting different options to examine if the overall finding results.
  3. It can be difficult for the students to convince that the judgement you used to select units for the case study was appropriate.

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FAQs

What are the types of purposive sampling techniques? ›

Depending on your research objectives, there are several purposive sampling methods you can use:
  • Maximum variation (or heterogeneous) sampling.
  • Homogeneous sampling.
  • Typical case sampling.
  • Extreme (or deviant) case sampling.
  • Critical case sampling.
  • Expert sampling.
11 Aug 2022

How many types of purposive sampling are there? ›

There are seven different ways of carrying out the purposive sampling method, and we'll discuss them one by one.

What are the two major types of purposive sampling? ›

Types of Purposive Sampling

Critical Case Sampling: collecting cases that are likely to give you the most information about the phenomenon you are studying. Expert Sampling: Sampling to include only those with expertise in a certain area.

What is purposive sampling technique according to? ›

According to Arikunto (2010: 183), purposive sampling is the process of selecting sample by taking subject that is not based on the level or area, but it is taken based on the specific purpose. Purpossive sampling is where a researcher selects a sample based on the needs about the study.

What are the four basic sampling techniques? ›

Probability sampling methods include simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, and cluster sampling.

What are the 4 sampling strategies? ›

Four main methods include: 1) simple random, 2) stratified random, 3) cluster, and 4) systematic. Non-probability sampling – the elements that make up the sample, are selected by nonrandom methods.

What is purposive sampling technique PDF? ›

The purposive sampling technique, also called judgment sampling, is the deliberate choice of an informant due to the qualities the informant possesses. It is a nonrandom technique that does not need underlying theories or a set number of informants.

What are sampling techniques? ›

Probability Sampling is a sampling technique in which samples from a larger population are chosen using a method based on the theory of probability. Non-probability sampling is a sampling technique in which the researcher selects samples based on the researcher's subjective judgment rather than random selection.

What are the 4 types of non-probability sampling? ›

Types of non-probability sampling
  • Convenience sampling.
  • Quota sampling.
  • Self-selection (volunteer) sampling.
  • Snowball sampling.
  • Purposive (judgmental) sampling.
20 Jul 2022

What is purposive sampling according to Creswell? ›

According to Creswell (2012), purposeful sampling means that to learn or understand the essential phenomenon, a researcher select individuals and sites intentionally. In addition, this study used homogeneous sampling.

How do we use the purposive sampling technique in a research study? ›

Purposive sampling is a technique in which the person conducting the research relies on their judgment to choose the members who will be part of the study. It is a type of nonprobability sample, and it's also referred to as a judgmental or expert sample.

What is purposive sampling give an example of purposive sampling? ›

Here's a simple example of how purposive sampling works in market research: Before launching a new wine product, an organization conducts pilot testing to gather feedback from the market. For the sample population, the researcher chooses expert wine tasters to provide valuable feedback for product improvement.

Why purposive sampling technique is used in quantitative research? ›

Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation research.

What is the most commonly used sampling techniques? ›

There are numerous ways of getting a sample, but here are the most commonly used sampling methods:
  1. Random Sampling. ...
  2. Stratified Sampling. ...
  3. Systematic Sampling. ...
  4. Convenience Sampling. ...
  5. Quota Sampling. ...
  6. Purposive Sampling.

What is random sampling and its 4 types? ›

There are four primary, random (probability) sampling methods – simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, and cluster sampling.

What are the 3 types of sampling bias? ›

Types of Sampling Bias
  • Observer Bias. Observer bias occurs when researchers subconsciously project their expectations on the research. ...
  • Self-Selection/Voluntary Response Bias. ...
  • Survivorship Bias. ...
  • Recall Bias.
28 Oct 2021

Which of the 4 sampling techniques is the most appropriate to remove bias? ›

One of the most effective methods that can be used by researchers to avoid sampling bias is simple random sampling, in which samples are chosen strictly by chance. This provides equal odds for every member of the population to be chosen as a participant in the study at hand.

How do you make a 3 4 4 4 sample? ›

Editing a 3/4 Sample Into a 4/4 Beat (Ableton Live) [Fire Emblem Fates]

What sampling technique did you use in selecting the participants of your study? ›

Random selection refers to the method used to select your participants for the study. For example, you may use random selection to obtain 60 participants by randomly selecting names from a list of the population.

How do you select purposive sampling participants? ›

The common (and simplest) method for selecting participants for focus groups is called "purposive" or "convenience" sampling. This means that you select those members of the community who you think will provide you with the best information. It need not be a random selection; indeed, a random sample may be foolish.

What are the 3 types of sampling distributions? ›

There are three standard types of sampling distributions in statistics:
  • Sampling distribution of mean. The most common type of sampling distribution is the mean. ...
  • Sampling distribution of proportion. This sampling distribution focuses on proportions in a population. ...
  • T-distribution.

What is the 5 non random sampling techniques? ›

There are five types of non-probability sampling technique that you may use when doing a dissertation at the undergraduate and master's level: quota sampling, convenience sampling, purposive sampling, self-selection sampling and snowball sampling.

What are the types of non-probability sampling techniques Explain briefly each type? ›

In a non-probability sample, some members of the population, compared to other members, have a greater but unknown chance of selection. There are five main types of non-probability sample: convenience, purposive, quota, snowball, and self-selection.

How many types of sample preparation methods are there? ›

The major sample preparation techniques that are amenable to automation are solid-phase extraction, LC, dialysis, microwave sample preparation, flow injection analysis, and segmented flow analysis.

How do you select sampling techniques? ›

We could choose a sampling method based on whether we want to account for sampling bias; a random sampling method is often preferred over a non-random method for this reason. Random sampling examples include: simple, systematic, stratified, and cluster sampling.

How do you determine sample size for purposive sampling? ›

However, In most studies the sample size is determined effectively by two factors: (1) the nature of data analysis proposed and (2) estimated response rate. For example, if you plan to use a linear regression a sample size of 50+ 8K is required, where K is the number of predictors.

What are sampling techniques in qualitative research? ›

Sampling in Qualitative Research

In this section, we briefly describe three of the most common sampling methods used in qualitative research: purposive sampling, quota sampling, and snowball sampling. As data collectors, you will not be responsible for selecting the sampling method.

How do you avoid bias in purposive sampling? ›

How to avoid or correct sampling bias
  1. Define a target population and a sampling frame (the list of individuals that the sample will be drawn from). ...
  2. Make online surveys as short and accessible as possible.
  3. Follow up on non-responders.
  4. Avoid convenience sampling.
20 May 2020

What is purposive sampling give an example of purposive sampling? ›

Here's a simple example of how purposive sampling works in market research: Before launching a new wine product, an organization conducts pilot testing to gather feedback from the market. For the sample population, the researcher chooses expert wine tasters to provide valuable feedback for product improvement.

What are sampling techniques? ›

Probability Sampling is a sampling technique in which samples from a larger population are chosen using a method based on the theory of probability. Non-probability sampling is a sampling technique in which the researcher selects samples based on the researcher's subjective judgment rather than random selection.

Which of the following is not a type of purposive sampling? ›

Q.Which of the following is not a type of purposive sampling?
B.deviant case sampling
C.theoretical sampling
D.snowball sampling
Answer» a. probability sampling
1 more row

What are the 4 types of non-probability sampling? ›

Types of non-probability sampling
  • Convenience sampling.
  • Quota sampling.
  • Self-selection (volunteer) sampling.
  • Snowball sampling.
  • Purposive (judgmental) sampling.
20 Jul 2022

What is the most commonly used sampling techniques? ›

There are numerous ways of getting a sample, but here are the most commonly used sampling methods:
  1. Random Sampling. ...
  2. Stratified Sampling. ...
  3. Systematic Sampling. ...
  4. Convenience Sampling. ...
  5. Quota Sampling. ...
  6. Purposive Sampling.

How many types of sample preparation methods are there? ›

The major sample preparation techniques that are amenable to automation are solid-phase extraction, LC, dialysis, microwave sample preparation, flow injection analysis, and segmented flow analysis.

What is purposive sampling technique PDF? ›

The purposive sampling technique, also called judgment sampling, is the deliberate choice of an informant due to the qualities the informant possesses. It is a nonrandom technique that does not need underlying theories or a set number of informants.

What is purposive sampling according to Creswell? ›

According to Creswell (2012), purposeful sampling means that to learn or understand the essential phenomenon, a researcher select individuals and sites intentionally. In addition, this study used homogeneous sampling.

How do you determine sample size for purposive sampling? ›

However, In most studies the sample size is determined effectively by two factors: (1) the nature of data analysis proposed and (2) estimated response rate. For example, if you plan to use a linear regression a sample size of 50+ 8K is required, where K is the number of predictors.

How do you avoid bias in purposive sampling? ›

How to avoid or correct sampling bias
  1. Define a target population and a sampling frame (the list of individuals that the sample will be drawn from). ...
  2. Make online surveys as short and accessible as possible.
  3. Follow up on non-responders.
  4. Avoid convenience sampling.
20 May 2020

What is the difference between purposive sampling and theoretical sampling? ›

In purposeful sampling, researchers select the participant sampling criteria prior to conducting research. In grounded theory studies, theoretical sampling occurs as the data collection progresses.

Is theoretical sampling a type of purposive sampling? ›

Although it is a variation of the purposive sampling, unlike a standard purposive sampling, theoretical sampling attempts to discover categories and their elements in order to detect and explain interrelationships between them.

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